Globalisation/Neo-colonialism

Introduction

      • From 15th. Century A.D. onwards European traders had started travelling to other continents. Later the responsible people from the governments practiced there systems of imperialism, colonialism, slavery etc.
      • After the end of colonialism, about middle of twentieth century this direct exploitation was replaced through neo-colonialism - an indirect domination and exploitation. Today Brazil is an emerging market country. The rest of the countries in South America are reckoned as developing countries. India and China have still big Problems of poverty and backlog in development.
      • The development of the human race is highlighted in different countries and continents in the past 500 years.

      If you want to read more about "Globalisation/Neocolonialism" then, please click below "Short Version"

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      Short Version

      Globalisation/Neo-colonialism

      Summary

      Since the actions of a human being can have global impacts, the development of the human race, especially in the past 500 years is highlighted.

      From 15th. Century A.D. onwards European traders and business people had started travelling by see to other continents of the world. These traders and business people as well as later the other responsible people from the governments mostly practiced there systems of imperialism, colonialism, slavery etc. What are the results?

      After explorations, the decimation of aboriginal peoples living in America and Australia, the deterioration of highly developed economies of India and China was carried out. The British were successful in establishing themselves as colonial masters and in 1857 took complete control over India; Great Britain had opium wars with China and made the Chinese drug addicted; Africans became slaves; with this direct exploitation Europe, USA, Canada, Australia achieved their material development.

      After the end of colonialism, about middle of twentieth century this direct exploitation was replaced through neo-colonialism - an indirect exploitation. " Fair Trade " , development aid etc., are " Fassades " of the business corporations and politics of the developed countries. How is the development of human beings on earth today?

      The 1% leftover of the native Indians of USA/Canada and the Aborigines of Australia, still live mostly in old reservations once created for them. Today Brazil is an emerging market country. The rest of the countries in South America are reckoned as developing countries. India and China have still big Problems of poverty and backlog in development, India much more than China. It does not need any explanations and details to know the present level of development of majority of the people in Africa. TV shows us enough of the present situation of wars, violence, poverty, diseases, corruption and the desperate situation of the most of the children. The negative results of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq etc. are self-explanatory. People in Europe, USA/Canada and Australia had a tremendous material development during the last 500 years.

      What are the in depth reasons for doing till today such persistent devastating and exploiting actions during the last five hundred years? To learn about that please see "World economic system"; "Qualities - generating values"; "Human Development".

      If you want to read my thoughts about globalisation in detail, please click below "Detaield Version".

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      Detailed Version

      Index

      Index

      1. Globalisation
      1.1 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents before the 15th century A.D.

      1.2 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents from the 15thcentury A.D. onwards

      America
      Australia
      China/India
      Africa
      Europe

      1.3 Neo-Colonialism from end of World War 2. till 2008

      1.4 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents today

      Situation of Indians/Afro-Americans in North and south America and Aborigines in Australia

      Mexico/South America

      China/India

      Africa

      Europe/North America/Australia

      Afghanistan war

      Iraq war

       

      1.5 Neo-Colonialism after the financial crisis of 2008

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      1. Globalisation

       

      Globalisation (this word exists since the 20th century. Before that other words were used to describe this process) is a process of coming together through the merger or integration of many single independent existing units (e.g. individuals, societies, institutions, countries integrating in the field of economics, politics, culture, environment etc.). Is this process a new phenomenon? When did it begin:

       

      • In eternity?
      • At the time of formation of our universe?  
      • At the time of formation of bacteria on earth?
      • At the time of formation of human beings on earth?
      • At the time of emergence of Afro/Asian cultures?
      • At the time of invasion of Persia/India about 350 B.C. by Alexander the great?
      • At the time of invasion of Ukraine/Afghanistan/India by Genghis Khan of Mongolia in the 13th century?
      • In the 15th century A.D., when the Europeans began to increase their influence in the world and Vasco Da Gama  landed in 1498 at Malabar coast in India - at that time already an international business centre for textiles, spices etc.
      • With the end of the world war II?
      • With the end of the Soviet Union?

       


      Immaterial of the phase in which the process of coming together started, it would be interesting to know how mankind shaped globalisation and what it has achieved.

      Let us confine our reflections and analysis to the development of humanity mostly from the 15th. century onwards. Please read below how the development of human beings in China / India and other countries was set back by centuries under the prevailing form of globalisation and world economic system and how today it is also effecting adversely the development of human beings in the developed countries.

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      1.1 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents before the 15th century

      1.1 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents before the 15th century

      Let us not spent too much time on human development from times immemorial, reducing it to the basics to understand the background of the present world situation.

      Feudalism was widespread in Europe and rest of the world in mediaeval times. There were well-defined Feudal Structures with hierarchies of social levels. The various levels were: Farm labourer; Normal citizen; Master; Lord; Sovereign; King; Emperor etc. Labourer were put under Masters and they were their owner and so forth; The ultimate order giver was the king or the emperor, who were supposed to be directly under God as His special servants.

      Of course, such social structures did not originate in mediaaevel times, but perhaps date back to the very emergence of human societies world-wide.   Violence, unfairness, exploitation and wars have been the lot of humanity since we started co-existing. The world over, a few individuals exercised overwhelming power over the others by practicing the negative qualities discussed above, in smaller or in bigger groups, where ever people came for living together.

       

      Conflicts and wars are humanity's common inheritance, be it economic, territorial and turf wars or Religious crusades etc. The creation of negative values such as violence, unfairness, exploitation, conflicts and wars have brought us devastation.

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      1.2 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents from 15th century A.D. till middle of 20th. century

      1.2 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents from 15th century A.D. till middle of 20th. century

      Let us take a man who eats lustfully. Now, somehow this person's turns to gluttony, and he begins overeating. Generally speaking, it would be natural for him to become fat, and depending upon circumstances, develop health problems.  

      And it goes on. This person adds deceit to his other negative qualities, plundering the family budget to enjoy himself, leaving crumbs for the others to survive. If anyone complains, he uses instruments of power to silence them. 

      With violence, injustice, exploitation and wars etc. such people in the whole world have shaped the form of co-existence of human beings. Since we live in Europe, let us increase the number of such individuals in a few European countries and see what has happened.

      From 15th century A.D. onwards traders and business people mainly, from Portugal, Spain, France, Great Britain (later also Germany), had started travelling by See to other continents of the world. As the following details show, these human beings and later the other responsible people from the governments mostly practiced the above written negative qualities. Besides that the potentates at that time have made use of imperialism, colonialism, slavery etc. What are the results?

      Americas

      At that time there was neither north nor south America. Available data shows that ca. 1500 A.D. the population of what we know today as North America was about 10 million people, and of South America about 15 million. The people of those ancient communities were most probably of Asian origin and had already mastered agriculture and animal husbandry. There were nomads among them, and also settled communities with highly developed cultures. Later the Spanish gave them the name Indians. By end of 15th century A.D. the potentates from Portugal, France, Spain and UK started destroying these human beings.

      Due to their considerable superiority of weapons, the invaders from the Europe decimated entire races . About 80-90% of the population was wiped out through a systematic pattern of: violence, exploitation, betrayal; deliberate spreading of diseases (such as Malaria, typhoid, diphtheria etc.); creation of conflicts between the natives; arming the natives and deliberately fomenting conflicts between them so that they were warring with one another etc.

      Australia

      Australia had approximately 0,5 to 1 million natives - the so-called Aborigines - when the explorers from England arrived. Colonisation followed from the 18th century onwards, and the native population suffered the same fate as their brethren in the Americas: being decimated to the point of extinction.

      China/India

      Following Vasco Da Gama's landing in Malabar on the shores of India in 1498, various European countries established Trading companies to do business with India.  

      In beginning of 17th century, the rising tide of British interest in India saw the establishment of the "East India Company" for trading with India. Employing strategies similar to those described above, and after wars with France and natives, the British were successful in establishing  themselves as colonial masters and in 1857 took complete control over India.

      The Chinese were resistant and installed deliberate trade barriers for foreigners. This changed after the colonisation of India. With a trade triangle between UK, China and India, opium from India was exported to China ostensibly to stabilise the trade balance, though some reports suggest it was to make the Chinese addicted to this drug. The Chinese government's action against their own people, and their negotiations with UK rather aggravated the opium consumption.

      Opium consumption in China rose dramatically during 1821-1837, Ultimately leading to first Opium War between china and Great Britain. The Chinese lost the war, and it resulted in the opening of many foreign trade ports in China forcing  unconstrained trade and handing over of Hong-Kong to Great Britain. This marked  the beginning of decline of China.

      Africa

      In the 14th century, Portuguese traders and business people succeeded  in breaking the Arab gold trade monopoly in West Africa  and brought back home Ivory, Gold and African slaves.

      After discovering America, the trading companies from Portugal, Holland, France and Great Britain had established a so called triangle of trade between Europe, America and Africa. This multiplied profits and brought enormous wealth to these countries. They used the proceeds from sales of weapons and schnapps brought from Europe to buy very cheap slaves. These were sold against gold and silver in the Canaries and other parts of Americas to the new immigrant planters from Europe, who grew tropical agricultural products like cotton, cafe, tobacco etc. on their plantations.

       

      The cultivation, especially of sugar, was very labour-intensive, which meant a heavy demand for African slaves. Later on the slaves were exchanged against agro-products such as cotton as cheap raw material for the textile industry in England.

      As the demand increased the "Slaves-hunting"  was extended into the interior of the continent. These human beings were brought then to the ports for shipping. To avoid escapes on the way, the traders cuffed the right arm of slaves with an iron cramp to a heavy log of wood which the helpless slaves had to carry. Blistering iron rods were used to burn the "Brand" of the trading company on every slave's chest before shipping. When they boarded the ships, these human beings were chained together and stocked at close quarters.

      Practically the entire continent of Africa was under the sway of European slavers until the end of the 19th century. Estimates put the figure of Africans lost in wars and during the pernicious trade to the Americas in human misery to around 50 million. It was only after the end of World War II that the decolonisation of Africa began.

      Europe      

      As you have read above the European history is full of  colonisation, wars and exploitation of other countries on the earth as well as wars in Europe. On the other hand, we know that the situation of European countries changed for the better after the Second World War.


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      1.3 Neo-Colonialism from end of World War 2. till 2008

      1.3 Neo-colonialism from World War 2. till 2008

      In times of colonialism the European countries exploited today's developing countries and emerging market countries directly through occupation of land. After the end of colonialism, about middle of twentieth century this direct exploitation was replaced through neo-colonialism - an indirect exploitation. The mechanisms of neo-colonialism, as during colonialism are military, political, cultural, technological, financial and economic dependencies

      The potentates in the politics, and corporations in US and Europe use the instruments of prevailing form of the world economic system to control the raw materials, finances and economy of the developing countries and emerging market countries and exploit them.

      Fair Trade, development aid etc., are " Fassades " of the business corporations and politics of the developed countries. Between " Fair Trade " business and normal business with the developing countries there is hardly any difference. Through " Fair Trade " , development aid etc., the developing countries get back a fraction of the above written exploitaion.

       

      We the normal human beings can watch what is going to happen to produce more misery and poverty on the earth. But I mean, our coming generations are going to question why we the today's human beings of the developed world have not protested non-violently against this.

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      1.4 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents today

       

      1.4 The material and immaterial development of human beings in different countries/continents today


      Situation of Indians/Afro Americans in North America and Aborigines in Australia

      Today's Population in USA is roughly composed of about: 72% of European origin;  13% African-Americans, descendants of slaves from Africa; 9% of  Latin American origin; 3% of Asian origin and the original inhabitants of the land, the native Indians, make up the remaining about 3%.

      In Australia approximately 75% of population is made up of the offspring of immigrants from England and Ireland, 24% are descendants of other Europeans and Asians etc. with only approx. 1% being the original inhabitants, the Aborigines.

      The original inhabitants of these lands, the native Indians of USA/Canada and the Aborigines of Australia, still live mostly in old reservations once created for them in regions far away from civilisation; a few have migrated to the nearby cities. These human beings are marginalized in their own country, with little or no recognition. Most of them live lives of poverty, with characteristics of the very poor: Jobless, violent, alcohol/drugs addicted, shorter lifespan due to diseases and poor medical services.

      Although the law gives equal rights to African-Americans in the USA and Canada, the reality is that they still live predominantly as second class citizens. Mostly they live in poor segregated areas of the city -the ghettos- and remain prey to the characteristics of poverty/backwardness as described above.

      Middle America/South America

      Today Brazil is definitely an emerging market country. In certain publications Mexico and Argentina are also considered as emerging market countries. Rest of countries are reckoned today as developing countries. Why is it so?

      The revolutions carried out in the 19th. and 20th. century in then colonies were not successful. The formation of independent countries was carried out on the basis of authoritative structures in Spain and Portugal after World War II. In some countries prevails today corruption, drugs trade and financial crises etc.

      China/India

      Both the countries were benefited due to the changed world politics and economic situation in Europe and USA after World War two. Both the countries have adopted different ways. After the civil war in 1949, under the given circumstances, China o adopted communism. India got its freedom from Great Britain in 1947 with non-violence and adopted democratic systems.

      Both the countries have big Problems of poverty and backlog in development, India much more than china. How both the countries manage to survive under today's Globalisation/World Economic System only time will show.

      Firstly, will both the countries be in a position, with new systems of development, to find ways to remove the poverty and backlog in development of most of their citizens? And, secondly, play their part in adapting new models of development to free humanity from today's vicious circle of violence and unbalanced development?

      Africa

      It does not need any explanations and details to know the present level of development of majority of the people in this continent. TV shows us enough of the present situation of wars, violence, poverty, diseases, corruption and the desperate situation of the most of the children etc. Why is this so? If you want to know the deep background of these developments, please see "World Economic System".

      Europe/North America/Australia

      People in Europe, USA/Canada and Australia had a tremendous materiel development during last 500 years. Due to positive developments in agriculture, general technology, Information technology, medicine etc. it has become possible for most of the people to live in dignity and have a long life. This is a great material development for us.

      To get rid of feudal ruling structures and replace them with democratic systems in Europe was an epic struggle for the development for the whole world.

      We, the general public in the west,  now have two possibilities. Possibility one is not to remain a non-active "fellow-runner" any more and become a "fellow-shaper".

      Or the second possibility is to remain a "fellow-runner" towards a negative development of  humanity as described in the following pages.

      Afghanistan war

      The war with Afghanistan in 2001 is not the first but the fifth between the western world and Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a point of conflict in world politics since the 19th century.. 

      During 1838-1842 and 1878-1881 the British armies stationed in India broke into Afghanistan. It ended with the peace treaty whereby the Afghan foreign affairs was handed over to UK. After the 3rd war between UK and Afghanistan in 1919, it attained  its full freedom once again.

      The fourth time was in 1978, when Afghanistan became a point of conflict between Russia and the western powers, USA/UK, with a communist Government coming into power. From the beginning of 1978 till the end of 1979 civil war prevailed in Afghanistan. From 1979-1989 Russian troops were in Afghanistan. After the Russian troops left,  Afghanistan again fell prey to civil war.

      During the civil war the radical Taliban which operated from the soil of Pakistan gained political strength, bringing about 75% of the country under its control, eventually establishing an Islamic dictatorship in Afghanistan in1997. Financially and materially the Taliban was supported by Pakistan. The depth of extent of involvement of the potentates in USA and UK will one day be revealed by history. 

      And then came the 5th Afghanistan war of 2001. Investigations and interrogations revealed that the terror attack 11 September 2001 on the World Trade Centre in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, DC was planned and executed by terrorist group "Al-Queda" (tolerated and supported by Taliban). As a consequence to this, the USA and other allies launched a massive attack on Afghanistan on 7 October 2001. Is the common man in Afghanistan today better of than before the war?

      Iraq war

      The US-led war (supported by UK, Poland etc.) against Iraq in 2003 was not the first invasion of this area, but practically a repetition of the conflict which took place about 90 years ago.

      Ninety years back the area of today's Iraq und Turkey belonged to the Ottoman Empire (1299-1920). The Ottoman's had a long history of conflicts with Russia and West European countries. Let us restrict ourselves here only to a few highlights from World War I onwards, and the war of 2003.


      1917-1920    
      In 1917 British troops invaded and occupied Baghdad. In 1920 they also occupied Mosul and Basra and gave this area the name "Iraq". The League of Nations gave authorisation over this area to Great Britain.

      1921    
      Foundation of monarchy in Iraq by Great Britain with King Faisal as the ruler.

      1929   
      Foundation of Iraq Petroleum Company (IPC) through western oil companies. The owners were:                       

      BP + Total +Shell: Approx. 70%
      ESSO + Mobil: Approx. 25%
      Oil Trader Gulbenkian: 5%    
      (Agent of Britain)

      1932       
      Abolition of Authorization of Great Britain over Iraq

      1941   
      unsuccessful insurgency of the people of Iraq against the roll of Great Britain in their country.

      1958   
      Military coup; Assassination of the King Faisal II; Proclamation of Iraq as a Republic.

      1964-1968   
      Numerous coup trials; Formation of the civil Nationalistic non-democratic Baath Party; Take over of Iraq by this party.

      1972   
      Oil excavation through government owned "National oil company" (established with money borrowed from Russia).

      1979   
      Sadam Hussain becomes President of Iraq.        

      1980-1988       
      War between Iraq and Iran.

      1990          
      Invasion of Kuwait by Iraq.

      1991   
      End of war between Iraq and Kuwait through military action led by USA and allies.

      2003

      In 2003 the military forces consisting mainly of USA and UK invaded
      Iraq calling it a preventive war. According to UN Charter,
      the military invasion of a country for self defence has to be
      legitimated by the UN Security Council. Here this was not the case.
      Accordingly, the critics and lawyers say that this invasion
      was an aggression.

      The US/UK/ and allied military forces had a strong army and highly developed weapons. It was no problem to overwhelm Iraq.

      What are the results of Afghanistan and Iraq wars up till now?

      • More than one million civilians have been killed
      • Thousands of soldiers have lost their lives
      • Cost of Iraq war, only for the US, amounts in Billion US $.

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      1.5 Neo-Colonialism after the financial crisis 2008

      1.5 Neo-Colonialism after the financial crisis 2008

      After the financial crisis in the western world in 2008 the velocity and the intensity of neo-colonialism has escalated and has been supplemented with other actions. As far as I understand the responsible potentates in politics and corporations take following actions: spread negative propaganda about the weaknesses of the sighted land, deliberately create frictions in the natives or misuse the existing conflicts for own interests, support the insurgents with money, help and weapons. In case all this does not help, then invade the country. Wars and turmoils since 2009 in North African countries as Tunisia, Algeria, Libya, Egypt etc. and the invasion of Mali and Central African Republic through French forces without a sanction of the United Nations Security Council proves this assumption. In 2015 French Forces had marched in Syria to fight against IS (In 2001 USA had marched in Afghanistan and created there IS in form of Mujahidin to fight against Russia). 

      I mean in the background plays "DESERTEC Project" also a role. This is a European project for producing electricity with help of renewable energies as wind and solar energy etc. in the areas starting from Europe including North Africa till beyond India. As it looks till now, the project is planned to be realised not for a proper gain of all the involved countries but through the indirect exploitation of other countries. There is a similarity to observe in the invasion of today's Iraq area through the British troops in 1917-1920.

      What are the in depth reasons for doing up till today such devastating actions during the last five hundred years? To learn about that please see "World economic system"; "Qualities - generating Values"; "Global Human Values Development".

       

       

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      Haben Sie Fragen/Kommentare?Do you have questions/comments?